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Algebra

Coffee

Crank

Flying Machine

Hospital

Music

Optics

Surgery

Toothbrush

 

 

  University  

  Top 10 Muslim Inventions  

(Arranged Alphabetically)

Think of the origins of that staple of modern life, the cup of coffee and Italy often springs to mind. But in fact, Yemen is where the ubiquitous brew has its true origins. Along with the first university, and even the toothbrush, it is among surprising Muslim inventions that have shaped the world we live in today.

 Algebra

The word algebra comes from the title of famous 9th century treatise "Kitab Al-Jabr Wal-Muqabla" which translates roughly as "The Book of Reasoning and Balancing" ; written by Al-Khwarizmi -- a Persian mathematician. Built on the roots of Greek and Hindu systems, the new algebraic order was a unifying system for rational numbers, irrational numbers and geometric magnitudes. The same mathematician, Al-Khwarizmi, was also the first to introduce the concept of raising a number to a power.

 Coffee

Now the Western world's drink du jure, coffee was first brewed in Yemen around the 9th century. In its earliest days, coffee helped Sufis stay up during late nights of devotion. Later brought to Cairo by a group of students, the coffee buzz soon caught on around the empire. By the 13ty century it reached Turkey, but not until the 16th century did the beans start boiling in Europe, brought to Italy by a Venetian trader.

 Crank

Many of the basics of modern automatic were first put to use in the Muslim world, including the revolutionary crank-connecting rod system. By converting rotary motion to linear motion, the crank enables the lifting of heavy objects with relative ease. This technology, discovered by Al-Jazari in the 12th century, exploded across the globe, leading to everything from the bicycle to the internal combustion engine.

 Flying Machine 

In the 9th century Abbas ibn Firnas designed a winged apparatus, roughly resembling a bird costume. In his most famous trial near Cordoba in Spain , Firnas flew upward for a few moments, before falling to the ground and partially breaking his back. His designs would undoubtedly have been an inspiration for famed Italian artist and inventor Leonardo de Vinci's hundreds of years later.

 Hospital

Hospitals as we know them today, with patients' wards and teaching centers, come from 9th century Egypt.The first such medical center was the Ahmad Ibn Tulun Hospital, founded in 872 AD in Cairo. The Tulun Hospital provided free medical care for anyone who needed it -- a policy based on the Muslim tradition of caring for all who are sick. From Cairo, such hospitals spread around the Muslim world.

 Music

Muslim musicians have had a profound impact on Europe, dating back to Charlemagne tried to compete with the music of Baghdad and Cordoba. Among marry instruments that arrived in Europe through the Middle East are the lute and raha, an ancestor of the violin. Modern musical scales are also said to derive from the Arabic alphabet.

 Optics

Around the year 1000, Ibn Al-Haitham proved that humans see objects by light reflecting off of them and entering the eye, dismissing Euclid and Ptolemy's theories that light was emitted from the eye itself. This great Muslim physicist also discovered the camera obscure phenomenon, which explains how the eye sees images upright due to the connection between the optic nerve and the brain.

 Surgery

Around the year 1000, the celebrated doctor Al Zahrwi published a 1500 page illustrated encyclopedia of surgery that was used in Europe as a medical reference for the next 500 years. Among his marry inventions, Zahrwi discovered the use of dissolving cat gut to stitch wounds -- beforehand a second surgery had to be performed to remove sutures. He also reportedly performed the first caesarean operation and created the first pair of forceps.

 Toothbrush

Prophet Muhammad SAW popularized the use of the first toothbrush in around 600 AD. Using a twig from the Meswak tree, he cleared his teeth and freshened his breath. Substances similar to Meswak are used in modern toothpaste.

 University

In 859 AD a young princess named Fatima al-Firhi founded the first degree-granting university in Fez, Morocco. Her sister Miriam founded an adjacent mosque and together the complex became the Al-Qarawiyyin Mosque and University. Still operating almost 1200 years later.

   
 

 

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