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unfortunate that there are countless scams many people run through phishing
for achieving info from honest people throughout the world, which is
undoubtedly then used for dubious purposes.
consider some safety measures while online. Here are some expert guidelines
to protect yourself from unwanted crash down. Good Luck!
It's better to be safe than
be safe while Online?
9 Quick Tips for Safe Online Shopping
An Ounce of
Prevention (most important)
computer viruses work?
What's a "Worm"?
What's a "Virus"?
History of Virus?
How the virus work in the computer?
people create viruses?
How to be safe while Online?
e-mail attachments from strangers. Some junk e-mails may contain viruses or
spyware that can harm your computer.
phishing emails congratulating; you have win a lottery prize.
prizes are fake. They will leads you to deposit the transfer fee in the
Never respond to
emails inviting you to attend a conference.
These are fake
conferences. They will leads you to book your accommodation in the nominated
Never respond to the emails that
depicts a crafted story and portraying themselves as the only survivor in
the family and that their father/husband have deposited millions of dollars
to their name. They invite you to sponsor them to start a mutual business in
your country. These emails are sent usually from yahoo accounts and
from African girls.
They leads you
to deposit transfer fee in the Bank of Africa.
Beware of spoof
email claiming to be from eBay, PayPal, or a bank or a company name you know
asking for personal or sensitive information. This is called phishing. The
e-mail may inform you that there is a problem with your account/password.
There may be a link to click inside. Forward any of these e-mails to the
company it claims to be sent from. They will confirm whether the e-mail you
received was real or not.
Never give out
your bank account or credit card information unless you are shopping with a
well-known or highly rated online business. Check for secure transaction
info. The best companies will have many security devices in place. You may
see a gold lock at the bottom of the page to indicate a secure site.
Do not give out
your name, address, or phone number to a stranger you chat with online. Only
give out this information if and when you feel comfortable. Go with your
If you do not
want to receive junk mail or get put on a telemarketer list, look for a
small box near the bottom of the page that asks if you want to receive
information and offers from other companies. The best sites will have a
statement listed that they will not sell your name to other companies. Some
free sample sites require you to give all your information to get the
product. Only fill in required fields that are marked with a *. If the info
box does not have an asterisk, it is optional and you can leave it blank.
If you decide to
meet someone from online, go to a public place and let friends and family
know your plans. Have an alternate plan if things turn out badly.
such as AOL, Yahoo, or MSN have messengers that allow you to chat with
others with an instant message (IM) or private message (PM) box. Go to the
preferences or options menu and carefully choose settings. It is best to
turn off messages from all users and only add people to your buddy list that
you know very well or someone you choose to talk to. Bad or annoying
programs may invade your messenger box or chat windows, such as spam bots,
boot codes, or hacker tools. These can damage your computer and record your
online activities. Always set your preferences to the highest security.
Get a good
anti-virus program, spyware remover, and firewall. There are free programs
available online, such as avast! antivirus, Microsoft Anti-Spyware and
Spybot, and Sygate personal firewall. They will block most hacker attempts
and alert you if problems are found.
children's activities closely and use parental controls when available. Use
a password a child will not guess.
can lie as much as they want online, so be careful. If you think that you
may be talking to someone who is a lot older than they say they are, look
out for clues, which may give them away.
passwords every month or so. Try not to use the same password more than once
at a time.
Tips for Safe Online Shopping
1. Use a good anti-malware
2. Optimize your PC's security settings
3. Share payment information only with known or reputable vendors
4. Use a credit card instead of a debit card
5. Make sure the order checkout area is encrypted
6. Print or save a copy of your orders
7. Use strong passwords
8. Check your statements often
9. Remember: If it looks too good to be true.
An Ounce of Prevention
simple steps for protecting yourself against viruses and remain virus free.
If you are truly
worried about traditional (as opposed to e-mail) viruses, you should be
running a secure operating system like UNIX or Windows NT. You never hear
about viruses on these operating systems because the security features keep
viruses (and unwanted human visitors) away from your hard disk.
If you are using
an unsecured operating system, then buying virus protection software is a
If you simply
avoid programs from unknown sources like the Internet, and instead stick
with commercial software purchased on CDs, you eliminate almost all of the
risk from traditional viruses. In addition, you should disable floppy disk
booting -- most computers now allow you to do this, and that will eliminate
the risk of a boot sector virus coming in from a floppy disk accidentally
left in the drive.
You should make
sure that Macro Virus Protection is enabled in all Microsoft applications,
and you should NEVER run macros in a document unless you know what they do.
No normal person adds macros to a document, so avoiding all macros is a
great policy. Open the Options dialog from the Tools menu in Microsoft Word
and make sure that Macro Virus Protection is enabled.
In the case of
the ILOVEYOU e-mail virus, the only defense is a personal discipline. You
should never double-click on an attachment that contains an executable that
arrives as an e-mail attachment. Attachments that come in as Word files
(.DOC), spreadsheets (.XLS), images (.GIF and .JPG), etc. are data files and
they can do no damage (noting the macro virus problem above in Word and
Excel documents). A file with an extension like EXE, COM or VBS is an
executable, and an executable can do any sort of damage it wants. Once you
run it, you have given it permission to do anything on your machine. The
only defense is to never run executables that arrive via e-mail.
How computer viruses work?
viruses are mysterious and grab our attention. A properly engineered virus
can have an amazing effect on the worldwide
the other hand, they show how sophisticated and interconnected human beings
have become. For example, the
"Melissa" virus -- which became a worldwide phenomenon in March of 1999 --
was so powerful that it forced Microsoft and a number of other very large
companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could
be contained. The "ILOVEYOU" virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating
effect. That's pretty impressive when you consider how simple the Melissa
and ILOVEYOU viruses are! When you listen to the news, you hear about many
different forms of electronic infection. The most common are:
- A virus is a small piece of software that piggy-backs on real programs.
For example, a virus might attach itself to a program like a spreadsheet
program. Each time the spreadsheet program runs, the virus runs too, and it
has the chance to reproduce (by attaching to other programs) or wreak havoc.
- An email virus moves around in email messages, and usually replicates
itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim's
email address book.
- A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and
security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the worm scans the network for
another machine that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the
new machine using the security hole, and then starts replicating from there
- A trojan horse is simply a normal computer program. The program claims to
do one thing (e.g. - it claims to be a game) but instead does damage when
you run it (e.g. - it erases your hard disk). Trojan horses have no way to
What's a "Worm"?
A worm is a
computer program that has the ability to copy itself from machine to
machine. Worms normally move around and infect other machines through
computer networks. Using a network, a worm can expand from a single copy
incredibly quickly. For example, the Code Red worm replicated itself over
250,000 times in approximately nine hours on July 19, 2001. Worms use up
computer time and network bandwidth when they are replicating, and they
often have some sort of evil intent.
What's a "Virus"?
are called viruses because they share some of the traits of biological
viruses. A computer virus passes from computer to computer like a biological
virus passes from person to person.
At a deeper
level there are similarities as well. A biological virus is not a living
thing. A virus is a fragment of DNA inside a protective jacket. Unlike a
cell, a virus has no way to do anything or to reproduce by itself -- it is
not alive. Instead, a biological virus must inject its DNA into a cell. The
viral DNA then uses the cell's existing machinery to reproduce itself. In
some cases, the cell fills with new viral particles until it bursts,
releasing the virus. In other cases the new virus particles bud off the cell
one at a time and the cell remains alive.
A computer virus
shares some of these traits. A computer virus must piggyback on top of some
other program or document in order to get executed. Once it is running, it
is then able to infect other programs or documents. Obviously the analogy
between computer and biological viruses stretches things a bit, but there
are enough similarities that the name sticks.
History of Virus
computer viruses were first widely seen in the late 1980s, and they came
about because of following three factors. Viruses took advantage of these
three facts to create the first self-replicating programs!
1. Spread of
personal computers (IBM in 1982) and the Apple Macintosh in 1984)
2. Use of
computer "bulletin boards."
3. Floppy disk.
How the virus work in the
Early viruses were
pieces of code attached to a common program like a popular game or a
popular word processor. A person might download an infected game from a
bulletin board and run it. A virus like this is a small piece of code
a larger, legitimate program. Any virus is designed so it runs first when
the legitimate program is executed. The virus loads itself into memory and
looks around to see if it can find any other programs on the disk.
If it can find one, it modifies it to add the virus's code to the
unsuspecting program. Then the virus launches the "real program." The user
really has no way to know that the virus ever ran. Unfortunately, the virus
has now reproduced itself, so two programs are infected. The next time
either of those programs gets executed, they infect other programs, and the
If one of the
infected programs is given to another person on a floppy disk, CD, USB Drive
or if it is uploaded to a bulletin board, then other programs get infected.
This is how the virus spreads.
part is the "infection" phase of the virus. Viruses wouldn't be so violently
despised if all they did was replicate themselves. Unfortunately, most
viruses also have some sort of destructive "attack" phase where they do some
damage. Some sort of trigger will activate the attack phase, and the virus
will then "do something" -- anything from printing a silly message on the
screen to erasing all of your data. The trigger might be a specific date, or
the number of times the virus has been replicated, or something similar.
creators got more sophisticated, they learned new tricks. One important
trick was the ability to load viruses into memory so they could keep running
in the background as long as the computer remained on. This gave viruses a
much more effective way to replicate themselves. Another trick was the
ability to infect the boot sector on floppy disks and hard disks. The boot
sector is a small program that is the first part of the operating system
that the computer loads. The boot sector contains a tiny program that tells
the computer how to load the rest of the operating system. By putting its
code in the boot sector, a virus can guarantee it gets executed. It can load
itself into memory immediately and it is able to run whenever the computer
is on. Boot sector viruses can infect the boot sector of any floppy disk
inserted in the machine, and on college campuses where lots of people share
machines they spread like wildfire.
In general, both
executable and boot sector viruses are not very threatening any more. The
first reason for the decline has been the huge size of today's programs.
Nearly every program you buy today comes on a compact disc. Compact discs
cannot be modified, and that makes viral infection of a CD impossible. The
programs are so big that the only easy way to move them around is to buy the
CD. People certainly can't carry applications around on a floppy disk like
they did in the 1980s, when floppies full of programs were traded like
baseball cards. Boot sector viruses have also declined because operating
systems now protect the boot sector.
Both boot sector
viruses and executable viruses are still possible, but they are a lot harder
now and they don't spread nearly as fast as they once could. Call it
"shrinking habitat," if you want to use a biological analogy. The
environment of floppy disks, small programs and weak operating systems made
viruses possible in the 1980s, but that environmental niche has been largely
eliminated by huge executables, unchangeable CDs and better operating system
Why do people create viruses?
has to write the code, test it to make sure it spreads properly and then
release the virus. A person also designs the virus's attack phase, whether
its a silly message or destruction of a hard disk. There are probably
at least three reasons:
The first is the
same psychology that drives vandals and arsonists. Why would someone want to
bust the window on someone else's car, or spray paint signs on buildings or
burn down a beautiful forest? For some people that seems to be a thrill. If
that sort of person happens to know computer programming, then he or she may
funnel energy into the creation of destructive viruses.
reason has to do with the thrill of watching things blow up. Many people
have a fascination with things like explosions and car wrecks. When you were
a kid there was probably a boy in your neighborhood who learned how to make
gunpowder and who then built bigger and bigger bombs until he either got
bored or did some serious damage to himself. Creating a virus that spreads
quickly is a little like that -- it creates a bomb inside a computer, and
the more computers that get infected, the more "fun" the explosion.
The third reason
probably involves bragging rights, or the thrill of doing it. Sort of like
Mount. Everest. The mountain is there and no one has climbed it, so someone
is compelled to do it. If you are a certain type of programmer and you see a
security hole that could be exploited, you might simply be compelled to
exploit the hole yourself before someone else beats you to it. "Sure, I
could TELL someone about the hole. But wouldn't it be better to SHOW them
the hole???" That sort of logic leads to many viruses.
Of course, all
of the virus creators miss the point that they cause real damage to real
people with their creations. Destroying everything on a person's hard disk
is real damage. Forcing the people inside a large company to waste thousands
of hours cleaning up after a virus is real damage. Even a silly message is
real damage because a person then has to waste the time getting rid of it.
For this reason, the legal system is getting much harsher in punishing the
people who create viruses.
latest thing is the e-mail virus, and the Melissa virus in March of 1999 was
spectacular. Melissa spread in Microsoft Word documents sent via e-mail, and
it worked like this. Someone created the virus as a Word document uploaded
to an Internet newsgroup. Anyone who downloaded the document and opened it
would trigger the virus. The virus would then send the document (and
therefore itself) in an e-mail message to the first 50 people in the
person's address book. The e-mail message contained a friendly note that
included the person's name, so the recipient would open the document
thinking it was harmless. The virus would then create 50 new messages from
the recipient's machine. As a result, the Melissa virus was the
fastest-spreading virus ever seen! As mentioned earlier, it forced a number
of large companies to shut down their e-mail systems.
virus, which appeared on May 4, 2000, was even simpler. It contained a piece
of code as an attachment. People who double clicked on the attachment
allowed the code to execute. The code sent copies of itself to everyone in
the victim's address book and then started corrupting files on the victim's
machine. This is as simple as a virus can get. It is really more of a Trojan
horse distributed by e-mail than it is a virus.
virus took advantage of the programming language built into Microsoft Word
called VBA, or Visual Basic for Applications. It is a complete programming
language and it can be programmed to do things like modify files and send
e-mail messages. It also has a useful but dangerous auto-execute feature. A
programmer can insert a program into a document that runs instantly whenever
the document is opened. This is how the Melissa virus was programmed. Anyone
who opened a document infected with Melissa would immediately activate the
virus. It would send the 50 e-mails, and then infect a central file called
NORMAL.DOT so that any file saved later would also contain the virus! It
created a huge mess.
applications have a feature called Macro Virus Protection built in to them
to prevent this sort of thing. If you turn Macro Virus Protection on, then
the auto-execute feature is disabled. By default the option is ON. So when a
document tries to auto-execute viral code, a dialog pops up warning the
user. Unfortunately, many people don't know what macros or macro viruses
are, and when they see the dialog they ignore it. So the virus runs anyway.
Many other people turn off the protection mechanism. So the Melissa virus
spread despite the safeguards in place to prevent it.
In the case of
the ILOVEYOU virus, the whole thing was human-powered. If a person
double-clicked on the program that came as an attachment, then the program
ran and did its thing. What fueled this virus was the human willingness to
double-click on the executable.
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The first hard drive, made by
IBM in 1956, was as big as two refrigerators and could store an impressive 5
MB of data.
its first Personal Computer, IBM 5250 on August 12, 1981.
Long before the
iPhone, the IBM Simon was released in 1994. Known as the first smartphone,
it was the first phone with PDA and telephone features in one device.
The first mouse
was invented by Douglas Engelbart in 1963. It was a wooden shell with two
(WWW) was introduced by Tim Burner Lee on August 6, 1991
was the first Search Engine created in 1989 by a computer science student;
Alan Emtage. Google was launched to the world 8 years later in 1997.
In 1965, E.A Johonson developed
the world's first touch screen. The technology was similar to today's
smartphones, but could only read one touch at a time.
Tic Tac Toe
(OXO, also known as "Noughts And Crosses") was the first graphical computer
game. It was programmed by A.S. Douglas in 1952 during his Ph.D in Cambridge
Fact: 90% of world computers run
Microsoft Windows as their operating system.
Intel PC has four protection modes: Abort, Retry, Fail and Reboot.
engineers never die, they just
more computer jokes
No. of Alphabet Letters
Sindhi (Pakistan) - 52
Urdu (Pakistan) - 37
Persian (Iran) - 32
Greek (Greece) - 24
English (Global) - 26
Latin - 23
(Ireland) - 18
40% of school students are unable to
60% of college students are unable
to understand English
70% of university students are
unable to speak English
85% of working professionals are
unable to give proper presentation
90% of applicants are unable to
write CVs and give interview
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