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Introduction of Pakistan

History

The Land

The People

The Economy

Government and Social Conditions
New Provinces

Some Memorable Events

Earthquake Pakistan 2005

 

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A national anthem, a flag, a stamp, or a national currency is a point of pride, seen as absolutely essential to the identity of the nation.

Introduction of Pakistan

Officially Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Urdu Islami Jamhuria-e-Pakistan, Asia's seventh largest country, occupying the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent. It covers an area of 307,374 square miles (796,095 square km), excluding the Pakistani-held part of Jammu and Kashmir in the northeast. The capital is Islamabad. The country extends for more than 990 miles (1,600 km) from south to north and for about 550 miles (880 km) from west to east. It is bounded to the west by Iran, to the north by Afghanistan, to the northeast by China, to the east and southeast by India, and to the south by the Arabian Sea. Pakistan has the world's sixth largest population.

History

Early settlements in the Balochistan region of Pakistan date from about 3500 BC. By the end of the 4th millennium BC, many settlers had migrated eastward from Balochistan to the Indus River valley, where several urban civilizations arose, such as the Harappan. The Indus Valley Civilization ended abruptly about 1500 BC. During the 2nd millennium BC, Aryan-speaking peoples migrated into the region. Buddhist writings of the 6th and 5th centuries BC mention the state of Gandhara in the Indus River valley. In 327 BC Alexander the Great entered Gandhara seeking to conquer the extremities of the Achaemenian Empire of Persia.

Pakistan was subsequently part of the Mauryan empire during the 3rd century and part of the 2nd century BC and later, in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, part of the Kushan (Kusana) kingdom. The Guptas ruled over northern India, including the Indus River valley, during a period in which Hindu culture crystallized (320-540). The first Muslim conquests occurred in Balochistan during the 8th century, and Muslims were active in the region from that time. In the 13th century Muslim power was consolidated into a sultanate centered on Delhi that continued to rule most of the subcontinent until the early 16th century.

The Mughal dynasty controlled the subcontinent between 1526 and 1761. The British East India Company ousted other colonial powers and then subdued the Mughal state in 1757. For a century the East India Company controlled most of the subcontinent, but in 1858 the British government assumed responsibility for the region following the 1857 mutiny of the Indian recruits in the Bengal army. During the period of British colonial rule, what is now (Muslim) Pakistan was administratively part of (largely Hindu) India. Early expressions of Indian nationalism crystallized in the Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress (1885) and in the All-India Muslim League (1906). In the decades following 1857 the Muslims sought to cooperate with the British, but, after World War I and the partition of the Ottoman Empire, they began to oppose British rule. The Muslim nationalist leader in this period was Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876-1949).

By 1940 the Muslim League, led by Jinnah, endorsed the concept of the partition of British India into separate Hindu and Muslim nations (i.e., India and Pakistan). The new state of Pakistan (a geographically discontinuous nation composed of East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated from each other by Indian territory) came into existence as a dominion within the Commonwealth in August 1947, with Jinnah as governor-general. The comparatively backward areas of Sindh, Balochistan, and the North-West Frontier came to Pakistan intact; the Punjab and Bengal were divided between Pakistan and India, while Kashmir remained disputed territory. Tension with India over Kashmir gradually increased, resulting in full-scale war in 1965.

In East Pakistan demands grew for Bengali autonomy, and civil war between East and West Pakistan erupted in 1971. Aided by an invasion of the Indian army, East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh in 1972. West Pakistan retained the name Pakistan. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto led Pakistan from 1971 until he was overthrown by General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq in a military coup in 1977. After Zia was killed in an accident in 1988, a civil servant, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, was appointed president, and Benazir Bhutto, leader of the PPP, became prime minister. Bhutto was the first woman to head a modern Islamic state. However, in 1990 President Ishaq Khan dismissed her, charging misconduct. In time, the charges against Bhutto were resolved, and in 1993 she was again named prime minister. In early 1997 Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party lost a national election and Nawaz Sharif of the Pakistan Muslim League became prime minister. Gen. Pervez Musharraf is the President of Pakistan at present, who deposed Nawaz Sharif in a result of military cop.

 

The Land

Pakistan can be divided physio-graphically into four regions: the great highlands, the Balochistan Plateau, the Indus Plain, and the desert areas. The Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan mountain ranges (the Karakoram and the Pamirs), rising to an average elevation of more than 20,000 feet (6,000 m) and including some of the world's highest peaks, such as K2 (28,251 feet [8,611 m]) and Nanga Parbat (26,660 feet [8,126 m]), make up the great highlands, which occupy the northernmost portion of the country. The Balochistan Plateau, a broken highland region about 1,000 feet (300 m) in elevation with many ridges crossing it from northeast to southwest, occupies the western and southwestern sectors of the country. The Indus Plain, the most prosperous agricultural region of Pakistan, covers an area of 200,000 square miles (520,000 square km) in the east and extends for 650 to 700 miles (1,000 to 1,100 km) from the rim of the Pothohar Plateau in northern Pakistan southward to the Arabian Sea. In the southeast are the desert areas, from north to south, the Thal, the Cholistan, and the Thar, all three northward or westward extensions of the Thar Desert of western India. The southwestward-flowing Indus is the principal river; its major tributaries are the Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, and Sutlej. Most of the country has little seismic activity, but the Quetta region and northern Pakistan are subject to severe earthquakes.

The climate is continental and is characterized by extreme variations of temperature. January (winter) temperatures range from 57 F (14 C) in the Indus Plain to 68F (20 C) along the coast and to 4 F (-20 C) in the high mountains (above 15,000 feet [460 m]). July (summer) temperatures range from 32 F (0 C) in the high mountains to 84 F (29 C) along the coast and to 95 F (35C) in the southeastern deserts. The southwest monsoon (July-October) provides rainfall of about 6 to 8 inches (150 to 200 mm) on the coast, 15 inches (380 mm) in the river valleys, and 40 inches (1,000 mm) or more in the mountainous northern areas. Rainfall varies from year to year, and successive periods of flooding and drought are not uncommon. Weather History of Pakistan

Pakistan's natural vegetation, except for forested mountain slopes, is largely limited to tough grasses, dry bushes, and scrub trees, though some riverine forests occur along the lower Indus River. Wildlife abounds in the northern mountains and includes brown bear, black Himalayan bear, leopard, and several species of wild sheep. Pakistan has known deposits of coal, iron ore, chromite, gypsum, copper, rock salt, marble, and other mineral resources that remain largely unexploited. Natural gas is by far the most valuable resource, with proven reserves accounting for about 0.5 percent of the world's total.

 

The People

Pakistan's population 1.4 billion is a complex mixture of indigenous peoples. The population's racial characteristics have been affected by successive waves of Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Pashtuns (Pathans), and Mughals coming from the northwest. Arabs have also left their mark on the population. Each of Pakistan's languages has a strong regional focus, and no single language can be said to be common to the whole population. The predominant linguistic group in Pakistan is Punjabi (almost one-half of the population); others include Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki, Urdu, and Balochi. Urdu is the language used by most educated Punjabis and is the nation's official language. Almost all of the population is Muslim; Hindus and Christians make up small minority groups.

By contrast, western and southwestern Pakistan are sparsely inhabited. Although only one-third of the nation's population is urban, the influx of rural migrants to Pakistan's few and crowded cities causes housing shortages and slums and overburdens transportation. Karachi is the country's largest city. Hyderabad, Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Faisalabad are other major cities. Maps of Pakistan and its Major Cities

 

The Economy

Pakistan has a developing mixed economy based largely on agriculture, light industries, and services. Many heavy industries were nationalized in the early 1970s and have been undermined by poor management. Banks were nationalized in 1974. The gross national product (GNP) is increasing more rapidly than the population, however the GNP is 3726 (Billion Rupees) Per capita 440 (US Dollars)

Agriculture accounts for approximately one-fifth of the GNP and employs more than one-half of the work force. Agricultural output has been kept low by the prevalence of sharecroppers who have little incentive to increase production; land reform and progressive taxes have been introduced in an attempt to reduce the number of sharecroppers. One-fourth of the total land area is arable, and most of the arable land is under irrigation. Dramatic increases in wheat production were made possible in the 1960s and '70s by the use of improved strains. These increases enabled Pakistan to become agriculturally self-sufficient, though there are occasional shortages of staples.

Wheat is the chief staple, and sugarcane is widely grown. Cotton and rice are major export crops. The number of livestock per person is high. Goats and sheep are the most numerous animals, followed by cattle, buffalo, and camels. Forests cover less than 4 percent of the total land area, and most of the wood removed annually is used for fuel. Fishing, mostly in the Indian Ocean, is an important industry. Mining, which is largely controlled by the government, accounts for about 2 percent of the GNP, and large quantities of petroleum, iron, and steel must be imported. Coal and iron ore, some petroleum, and substantial quantities of natural gas are extracted. Limestone, chromite, and gypsum are widely mined.

Manufacturing accounts for approximately one-sixth of the GNP and employs one-eighth of the work force. Textiles, particularly cotton textiles, are the chief manufacture and are a leading export. Small-scale industries are generally more productive than the heavy industries controlled by the government. Trade and commerce employ about one-sixth of the work force. Pakistan's major exports of raw cotton, cotton yarn, cotton fabrics, rice, leather, and woolen carpets are imported by Japan, the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Italy. Imports, mainly from these same countries, include non-electric machinery, mineral oils, edible oils, grains and flour, and transport equipment.

About half of Pakistan's electricity is generated by hydroelectric power plants. Most of the remainder is produced by fossil fuels, with a small portion from nuclear power. Underemployment is widespread. Emigration has depleted the skilled work force, and there is a shortage of technicians, engineers, doctors, and various craftsmen. Remittances from Pakistanis working abroad are a major source of foreign exchange. Budgetary revenue is derived primarily from tariffs and excise taxes. Expenditures are directed primarily to payment of the public debt, defense, subsidies, education and health, and grants to local authorities.  

 

Government and Social Conditions

After several years of military rule, full civilian government was restored with parliamentary elections held in 1988. Under the amended 1973 constitution, the president appoints as prime minister the leader of that political party which can muster a voting majority in the National Assembly. Pakistan's judicial system is headed by the Supreme Court, and each province has a high court. The Federal Shariat Court, a court of Islamic law (Shari'ah), was set up in the 1980s. Constitution of Pakistan

Pakistan's social-welfare services including health, education and accommodation are accessible to majority of the masses. Only about one-fourth of Pakistan's overall population is literate, and the proportion for women is even lower at about one-sixth. Primary education is free, but less than half of all school-aged children are enrolled. Because of the extent of illiteracy, radio is the most important communications medium; broadcasts in more than 20 languages. Television channels have spread out its transmission in rural areas through boosters in recent years. A 24-hours PTV World Service has been launched recently.

Recent domestic and international emphasis on Islamic ideology has brought about a strong identification with Islamic culture in Pakistan. Qawwali, a form of devotional singing, is very popular. Public poetry recitations called musha'irahs are organized like musical concerts. Urdu, Sindhi, and Pashto poets are regional and national heroes. Western-style literary activity is carried on in all of the modern languages of Pakistan, but especially in Urdu, Balochi, Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi, and English. The preeminent cultural figure in Urdu is the 19th-20th-century poet and philosopher Muhammad Iqbal, acclaimed as the spiritual father of modern Pakistan.

New Provinces

Khyber Pakhtoonkhawah: Its the new name of NWFP (North Western Frontier Province) passed by National Assembly on 8 April 2010

Gilgit Baltistan: On 29 August 2009, the Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order, 2009, was passed by the Pakistani cabinet and later signed by the President of Pakistan. 

 

Some Memorable Events:

22 Mar 1978

First public hang in Pakistan (Lahore)

04 Apr 1979

Execution of Premier Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in Pakistan

23 Mar 1995

First FM-100 radio started its 24 hrs broadcasts in Pakistan

28 May 1998

First successful Nuclear tests by Pakistan at Chaaghi, Baluchistan.

08 Oct 2005

Massive Earthquake in Pakistan Magnitude: 7.6

27 Dec 2007

Assassination of twice Premier Benazir Bhutto in Pakistan

Earthquake Pakistan 2005 (Worse than Asian Tsunami)

THANKS FOR ALL THOSE INDIVIDUALS, NGOs AND COUNTRIES, WHO DONATED GENEROUSLY


Earthquake Pakistan Oct  8, 2005
Estimated Deaths: (official)  80,361  at least

As you grow older, you'll discover that you have two hands:
One for helping yourself, the second for helping others.

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created by ajmalbeig

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Map of Pakistan

» Contact Pakistan Government
» Official Site of Pakistan
» Official Site of the President
» Constitution of Pakistan
» Ministries of Pakistan
» General Visa Policy
» Download Government Forms

The Word Factbook about Pakistan
Online Encyclopedia of Pakistan
Weather History of Pakistan
The Khyber Pass
Web Directory of Pakistan
Pakistan Meteorological Deptt.
Pakistan Profile on BBC
Jinnah of Pakistan 

Web Directory of Pakistan
Official Website of Pakistan
Diplomatic Missions in Islamabad
Constitution of Pakistan
The UN in Pakistan
WHO in Pakistan

Quaid-e-Azam M.A. Jinnah 
Quaid-e-Azam  
Father of the Nation
Allama Muhammad Iqbal   
Iqbal Academy, Lahore.  
Websites on Iqbal (Databank)

  Online Media

» Pakistani TV Channels
» Pakistani Newspapers
» Pakistani Magazines

  Daily Newspapers

Daily Jang Urdu
Daily Nawa-e-Waqt Urdu
Daily Express Urdu
Daily Mashriq Urdu
Daily Ausaf
Urdu
The Nation
English

The News English
The Dawn English

  Some Quick Links

» Pakistan Election Commission
» Pakistan International Airlines
» Pakistan Railways
»
Pakistan Telecommunication Ltd.
» Pakistan Television Corporation
» Pakistan Post
» Sui Northeren Gas Pipelines Ltd

» NADRA

Signature of the Quaid

A hidden picture of Quaid-e-Azam

Handwriting of Iqbal

 

I go to school to be a good citizen and not for a special citizen.
 

 

 

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