ڪراچي) is the capital of the province of Sindh, and the most populated city
in Pakistan, sometimes known as the "City of Baba Quaid-e-Azam", after
Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder of Pakistan. It is located on the coast of
the Arabian Sea in southeastern Pakistan, northwest of the Indus Delta. The
city is the financial and commercial centre as well as the largest port of
Karachi is located at latitude 24° 48´ N and longitude 66° 59´ E. The urban sprawl starts from the westernmost mouth of the River Indus and goes up to the mountains and hills that form the southernmost edges of the Kirthar Mountain Range. The Arabian Sea is the southern boundary of the city. The city is located on the Arabian Sea north west of the mouths of the Indus River.
Karachi is mostly made up of flat or rolling plains with hills on the western and northern boundaries of the urban sprawl. Two rivers pass through the city the Malir River (north east to center) and the Liari River (north to south). Many other smaller rivers pass through the city as well with general drainage being from the western and northern areas towards the south. The Karachi harbour is a protected bay to the south west of the city. The southern limit of the city is the Indian Ocean and forms a chain of beautiful sandy beaches.
The area that now consists of Karachi was originally a group of small villages including Kalachi-jo-Kun and the fort of Manora. Any history of Karachi prior to the 19th century is sketchy. It is said that the city called Krokola from which one of Alexander the Great's admirals sailed at the end of his conquests was the same is Karachi. When Muhammad bin Qasim came to India in the year 712 he captured the city of Debul. It has been said that Debal was the ancestral village of present day Karachi. Although this has neither been proven or disproven.
It was in 1729
that Kolachi-jo-Goth was transformed from a fishing village to a trading
post when it was selected as a port for trade with Muscat and Bahrain. In
the following years a fort was built and cannons brought in from Muscat were
mounted on it. The fort had two doorways, one facing the sea called the
Khara Darwaza or Brackish Gate and one facing the River Lyari called the
Meetha Darwaza or Sweet Gate. In 1795 the city passed from the Khan of Kalat
to the Talpur rulers of Sindh. Karachi had gained in position as a major
port and was hence becoming an important city. The importance of the Indus
and Sindh led the British to capture the city on the 3rd of February 1839
starting an era of foreign rule and colonial subjugation that was to end in
Karachi district has the highest literacy rate in any of Pakistan's districts. The city is home to many universities and colleges. Here is a list of some of the more important ones.
Karachi is the financial capital of Pakistan. It is also home to the largest stock exchange of Pakistan: the Karachi Stock Exchange. Most Pakistani banks have their headquarters in Karachi. Most of these are located on the I.I.Chundrigarh Road. The headquarters of nearly all the multinational corporation (MNC) based in Pakistan are in Karachi. Most Pakistani corporations are headquartered in Karachi as well. Karachi also has a huge industrial base. There are large industrial estates on most of the fringes of the main city. The main industries are textiles, pharmaceuticals, steel, and automobiles. Apart from this there are many cottage industries in the city as well. Currently, the Karachi Port is the only large port in Pakistan, and is central to all shipping in Pakistan. The airport of Karachi is also the largest airport in Pakistan and the hub of most local airlines. Karachi accounts for the lion's share of Pakistan's GDP. The city is said to contribute about 48% of the national revenues.
Karachi is a
melting pot of peoples and cultures. Before 1947, the city was inhabited
mainly by people from the areas near the city, the people basically being
Sindhis, Baluchis, Mekranis and Gujaratis. In 1947 most of the city's Hindu
population left, and a large number of immigrants Mohajirs came from India.
Most of these are from the Urdu Speaking parts of India. But Memons from
Gujarat and small quantities of communities from other areas also arrived.
Giving Karachi a flavour of all the provinces and parts of British India.
After independence a steady stream of immigrants has been coming to the city
from different parts of Pakistan and made large Punjabi, Pathan, Bengali and
Hazara communities to grow in Karachi. In 1971 there was a large influx of
mainly Urdu Speaking people from the former East Pakistan. In the 1980s a
large number of Afghan refugees streamed into the city.
Earthquake Pakistan 2005 (Worse than Asian Tsunami)